Sunday, May 20, 2018

[Botany • 2018] Coelogyne victoria-reginae (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae, Arethuseae) • A New Species from Chin State, Myanmar


Coelogyne victoria-reginae Q.Liu & S.S.Zhou

in Zhou, Tan, Jin, et al., 2018.

Abstract
Coelogyne victoria-reginae, a new species of section Proliferae, from Natma Taung (Mt.Victoria) National Park, Chin State, Myanmar, is described and illustrated. It is morphologically similar to C. prolifera, but the clustered pseudobulbs, pure brownish- red flowers and column wing with irregular notches at the apex of the new species differ from the other species. A preliminary risk-of-extinction assessment shows that the new species is regarded as EN C2a[i] according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.

Keywords: NatmaTaung (Mt. Victoria) National Park, risk of extinction assessment, section Proliferae, taxonomy


Figure 2. Coelogyne victoria-reginae.
A Habitat B Plant C Inflorescence D Flower E Lateral view of labellum F Front view of labellum G Front and lateral view of column H Abaxial and adaxial anther cap. I. Pollinarium
 (Photographed by Q. Liu) 

Figure 1. Coelogyne victoria-reginae.
A Plant B Inflorescence C Lateral view of labellum D Pollinarium E Abaxial and adaxial anther cap F Sepals and petals G Front view of flower H Front and lateral view of column.
All from the type collection (Qiang Liu, M17-18) and drawn by Lan Yan. 

Figure 3. A Coelogyne schultesii (A-1 Plant A-2 Inflorescence A-3 Flower)
Coelogyne ecarinata (B-1 Plant B-2 Inflorescence B-3 Flower)
Coelogyne victoria-reginae (C-1 Plant C-2 Inflorescence C-3 Flower)
(Photographed by Q. Liu).

Coelogyne victoria-reginae Q.Liu & S.S.Zhou, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Coelogyne victoria-reginae is closely related to C. prolifera by having the elliptic mid-lobe with two lamellae terminating at 2/3 on to mid-lobe, ovate or oblong lateral lobes. However, the new species can be distinguished from the latter by the ovoid pseudobulb and 1.1–1.4 cm apart on rhizome, flower brownish-red, lateral sepals (10–11 ×5.5–6.0 mm) significantly larger than dorsal sepal (7.0–8.0 × 4.5–5.0 mm).

Etymology: The new species is named after Victoria Mountain region, NatmaTaung National Park, Chin State, South-western Myanmar, where it was discovered in a vast area of mountain forest.

Distribution and habitat: Coelogyne victoria-reginae is only known from the type locality. It grows as an epiphyte on tree trunks in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, which is dominated by Lithocarpus xylocarpus (Kurz) Markg. (Fagaceae).


 Shi-Shun Zhou, Yun-Hong Tan, Xiao-Hua Jin, Kyaw Win Maung, Myint Zyaw, Ren Li, Rui-Chang Quan and Qiang Liu. 2018. Coelogyne victoria-reginae (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae, Arethuseae), A New Species from Chin State, Myanmar.   PhytoKeys. 98: 125-133.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.98.23298

   

Saturday, May 19, 2018

[Herpetology • 2018] Kinosternon vogti • A Distinctive New Species of Mud Turtle from Western México


 Kinosternon vogti 

López-Luna, Cupul-Magaña, Escobedo-Galván, González-Hernández, Centenero-Alcalá, Rangel-Mendoza, Ramírez-Ramírez & Cazares-Hernández, 2018

Abstract
The genus Kinosternon in Mexico is represented by 12 species of which only 2 inhabit the lowlands of the central Pacific region (Kinosternon chimalhuaca and Kinosternon integrum). Based on 15 standard morphological attributes and coloration patterns of 9 individuals, we describe a new microendemic mud turtle species from the central Pacific versant of Mexico. The suite of morphological traits exhibited by Kinosternon sp. nov. clearly differentiates it from other species within the genus Kinosternon by a combination of proportions of plastron and carapace scutes, body size, and a large yellow rostral shield in males. The new species inhabits small streams and ponds in and near the city of Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. Unfortunately, natural populations are unknown so far. The habitat is damaged by urban growth, and only one female is known. The available information would suggest that Kinosternon vogti sp. nov., is one of the most threatened freshwater turtle species. An urgent conservation program is necessary as well as explorations in the area to find viable populations of the species.

Keywords: Reptilia, Testudines, Kinosternidae, Kinosternon vogti sp. nov., microendemism, endangered species, Jalisco



SYSTEMATICS 
Order: Testudines 
Suborder: Cryptodira 
Family: Kinosternidae 

Kinosternon vogti sp. nov. 
Vallarta Mud Turtle, Casquito de Vallarta


Etymology. — With great pleasure we name this new species in honor of one of the most important and enthusiastic researchers of freshwater chelonians of the 21st century, Professor Richard Carl Vogt. ‘‘Dick,’’ as his friends know him, has been involved for more than 40 yrs in studies of high scientific impact, mentoring along the way younger scientists in the study of freshwater turtles across the American continents, in the United States, Mexico, and Central and South America.


Marco A. López-Luna, Fabio G. Cupul-Magaña, Armando H. Escobedo-Galván, Adriana J. González-Hernández, Eric Centenero-Alcalá, Judith A. Rangel-Mendoza, Mariana M. Ramírez-Ramírez and Erasmo Cazares-Hernández. 2018. A Distinctive New Species of Mud Turtle from Western México.  Chelonian Conservation and Biology. In-Press.  DOI: 10.2744/CCB-1292.1 


Resumen: El género Kinosternon en México está representado por 12 especies, de las cuales solo dos habitan las tierras bajas de la región Pacífico central (Kinosternon chimalhuaca K. integrum). Con base en la evaluación de quince atributos morfológicos y la coloración de nueve individuos, describimos una nueva especie de tortuga lodo micro-endémica del Pacífico central de México. El conjunto de rasgos morfológicos exhibidos por Kinosternon sp. nov., lo diferencia claramente de otras especies dentro del género Kinosternon por una combinación de proporciones de escudos de plastrón y caparazón, tamaño del cuerpo y un escudo rostral de color amarillo en los machos. La nueva especie habita pequeños arroyos y estanques en y cerca de la ciudad de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. No se conocen poblaciones naturales hasta el momento. El hábitat está dañado por el crecimiento urbano, y solo se conoce una hembra. La información disponible sugeriría que Kinosternon vogti sp. nov., es una de las especies de tortugas de agua dulce más amenazadas. Es necesario un programa de conservación urgente, así como exploraciones en el área para encontrar poblaciones viables de la especie.

[Ichthyology • 2018] Hypostomus renestoi • Redescription of Hypostomus latirostris (Regan, 1904) with the Recognition of A New Species of Hypostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the upper rio Paraguay Basin, Brazil



Hypostomus renestoi Zawadzki, da Silva & Troy, 2018

Hypostomus latirostris  (Regan, 1904)

 DOI:  10.23788/IEF-1079 

Hypostomus latirostris was originally described by Regan (1904) from “River Jungada [= rio Jangada], Matto Grosso and Goyaz”; however, the species is rarely mentioned in taxonomic works on Hypostomus from Paraguay. Herein, the two syntypes of Plecostomus latirostris were examined showing critical differences between them. After the analysis of a large sample of recently collected specimens from the upper rio Paraguay basin we concluded that the two syntypes from the rio Jangada indeed belong to different species. Hypostomus latirostris is redescribed and a lectotype is designated herein. The other syntype (now a paralectotype of H. latirostris) is designated as paratype of Hypostomus renestoi, new speciesHypostomus renestoi can be differentiated from H. latirostris by having robust teeth (vs. slender); by having 28-77 teeth on the premaxilla (vs. 79-111) and 25-64 on the dentary (vs. 79-109); by having small and more conspicuous dark spots (vs. larger and less conspicuous dark spots); by having dorsal and mid-dorsal series of plates with moderate hypertrophied odontodes (vs. lacking hypertrophied odontodes on lateral series of plates); and usually by attaining a smaller size. 


Fig. 7. Hypostomus renestoi, MCP 49767, holotype, 121.8 mm SL; Brazil: Mato Grosso State: rio Diamantino, upper rio Paraguay basin. Photographed alive.
Fig. 2. Hypostomus latirostris, NUP 3975, 127.0 mm SL; Brazil: Mato Grosso State: rio Jangada, upper rio Paraguay basin. Photographed alive. 

Hypostomus latirostris (Regan, 1904)

Plecostomus pantherinus (not Kner, 1854): Boulenger, 1892: 9. 
Plecostomus latirostris Regan, 1904: 213, Pl. 11, Fig. 1. Type locality: Rio Jungada [= Jangada], Matto Grosso and Goyaz [Brazil]. Syntypes: BMNH 1892.4.20.26-27 (2); Gosline, 1947: 115 (brief comments). 
Hypostomus latirostris – Burgess, 1989: 431 (checklist); Isbrücker, 1980: 25 (checklist); Montoya-Burgos et al., 2002: 374 (Fig. 2; molecular phylogeny); Montoya-Burgos, 2003: 1859, Fig. 2; molecular phylogeny); Weber, 2003: 359 (checklist); Ferraris, 2007: 255 (checklist); Cardoso et al., 2012: 74 (Fig. 2; molecular phylogeny). 
Hypostomus sp. – Werner et al., 2005: 197 (L224, photo 3; neighborhood rio Cuiabá) and 302 (L388, photo 1; waters flowing to rio Cuiabá near Cuiabá). 
Hypostomus sp. 2 – Veríssimo et al., 2007: 6 (checklist, Manso Reservoir, upper rio Paraguay basin, Brazil). 
Hypostomus cf. latirostris - Renesto et al., 2007: 870 (allozymes).

Distribution and habitat. Hypostomus latirostris is known from several localities along the rio Cuiabá basin (Fig. 4). Regan (1904) pointed out the rio Jangada as the type locality. Records of H. latirostris were made in all the extension of the rio Manso and also in the rio Cuiabá basin. The rio Manso and the rio Cuiabazinho are the formers to rio Cuiabá. The rio Cuiabá basin is mainly located upstream the Brazilian Pantanal. Most specimens were collected before and after the construction of the Manso Reservoir. The rio Cuiabá basin has clear water, with rocky and sandy substrate, and variable remnant riparian vegetation. The individuals were collected whether in rapids or in lentic environments. Juveniles were usually collected in oxbow lakes in the rio Cuiabá basin and streams. Specimens of H. latirostris were collected co-occurring with H. boulengeri, H. cochliodon, H. khimaera, H. latifrons, H. piratatu, H. regani, H. ternetzi, H. peckoltoides, and H. mutucae.


Hypostomus renestoi, new species 

Plecostomus latirostris Regan, 1904: 213 (partim). Type locality: Rio Jungada, Matto Grosso [Brazil]. Syntypes: BMNH 1892.4.20.26-27 (2). 
Hypostomus sp.: Werner et al., 2005: 302 (L389, photo 2; waters flowing to rio Cuiabá near Cuiabá). 
Hypostomus sp. 3 – Renesto et al., 2007: 870 [allozymes]. 
Hypostomus sp. 4 – Veríssimo et al., 2007: 6 (checklist, Manso Reservoir, upper rio Paraguay basin, Brazil).

Diagnosis. Hypostomus renestoi is distinguished from the species of the H. cochliodon group (sensu Zawadzki & Hollanda Carvalho, 2015) by having viliform teeth and angle between dentaries usually larger than 80° (vs. spoon- or shovel-shaped teeth and angle between dentaries about 80°); from H. affinis, H. ancistroides, H. arecuta, H. argus, H. aspilogaster, H. borellii, H. boulengeri, H. carinatus, H. careopinnatus, H. carvalhoi, H. commersoni, H. crassicauda, H. delimai, H. derbyi, H. dlouhyi, H. faveolus, H. formosae, H. hemiurus, H. interruptus, H. itacua, H. laplatae, H. niceforoi, H. nigrolineatus, H. nigropunctatus, H. paucimaculatus, H. piratatu, H. plecostomus, H. pantherinus, H. punctatus, H. pusarum, H. scabryceps, H. seminudus, H. subcarinatus, H. tapijara, H. variostictus, H. velhochico, and H. watwata by lacking keels on median lateral series of plates (vs. having moderate or strong keels along lateral series of plates); from H. alatus, H. albopunctatus, H. chrysostiktos, H. fluviatilis, H. francisci, H. margaritifer, H. luteomaculatus, H. lexi, H. luteus, H. margaritifer, H. meleagris, H. microstomus, H. multidens, H. myersi, H. niger, H. regani, H. roseopunctatus, H. scaphyceps, H. sertanejo, H. strigaticeps, H. tietensis, and H. variipictus by having dark spots on a clearer background (vs. pale spots or vermiculations on a darker background); from H. asperatus, H. brevicauda, H. goyazensis, H. heraldoi, H. hermanni, H. iheringii, H. kuarup, H. lima, H. luetkeni, H. macrops, H. mutucae, H. nigromaculatus, H. paulinus, H. topavae, H. unae, and H. wuchereri by having dorsal and mid-dorsal series of plates with moderate hypertrophied odontodes (vs. lacking conspicuous odontodes on lateral series of plates); from H. angipinnatus, H. agna, H. isbrueckeri, H. laplatae, H. latifrons, H. nigropunctatus, H. uruguayensis, and H. vaillanti by having one plate bordering supraoccipital (vs. three to seven); from H. bolivianus, H. fonchii, and H. perdido by having bicuspid teeth (vs. unicuspid teeth); from H. peckoltoides by having dark large spots on body and fins (vs. wide dark transverse bars on body and bands on fins); from H. ternetzi by having ventral unbranched caudal-fin ray length smaller to equal to predorsal length (vs. unbranched caudal-fin ray length clearly larger than predorsal length); from H. latirostris by having: robust teeth (vs. slender); by having 28-77 teeth on premaxilla (vs. 79-111) and 25-64 on dentary (vs. 79-109); small and more conspicuous dark spots (vs. larger and less conspicuous dark spots); dorsal and mid-dorsal series of plates with moderate hypertrophied odontodes (vs. lacking conspicuous odontodes on lateral series of plates); and usually by attaining a smaller size. 

Ecological notes. Sometimes very small black dots due to encysted metacercariae on trunk, belly and fins (Figs. 5, 7). 

Distribution and habitat. Hypostomus renestoi was mainly collected in the rio Cuiabá and its tributaries (Fig. 8). As a small- to medium-sized species, the specimens were collected in small- and medium-sized streams, with ranges from 1.5 to 6 m wide, as well as records were also from the margins or shallow stretches of the larger Cuiabá and Manso rivers. The area sampled presented varied vegetation of degraded areas by mining practices, recreation, pasture, agriculture, and often a small riparian vegetation. The streams usually had as substrate sand, clay, gravel and rocks. Several specimens were collected in rapids on mouth of the tributaries to the rio Manso. With the construction of Manso Reservoir the lower stretches of some tributaries of the rio Manso are nowadays flooded by the lake reservoir. 

Etymology. The specific epithet renestoi is in honor of the professor Erasmo Renesto, Brazilian ichthyologist, due to his contributions to the genetic field of the Neotropical fishes.


 Cláudio Henrique Zawadzki, Hugmar Pains da Silva and Waldo Pinheiro Troy. 2018. Redescription of Hypostomus latirostris (Regan, 1904) with the Recognition of A New Species of Hypostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the upper rio Paraguay Basin, Brazil. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters.  DOI:  10.23788/IEF-1079

[Herpetology • 2018] Molecular Systematics and Historical Biogeography of the Genus Gerrhonotus (Squamata: Anguidae)



in García‐Vázquez, Nieto‐Montes de Oca, Bryson, et al. 2018. 
   DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13241 


Abstract
Aim: 
Multiple geological and climatic events have created geographical or ecological barriers associated with speciation events, playing a role in biological diversification in Mexico. Here, we evaluate the influence of Neogene geological events and of Pleistocene climate change in the diversification of the genus Gerrhonotus using molecular dating and ancestral area reconstruction.

Location: Mexico and south‐central United States.

Methods: 
A multilocus sequence dataset was generated for 86 individuals of Gerrhonotus from most Mexican biogeographical provinces and belonging to five of the seven currently recognized species, as well as two putative undescribed species. Phylogeographical structure was explored using Poisson‐Tree‐Processes molecular species delimitation. Divergence events were estimated based on the fossil record using a relaxed uncorrelated lognormal clock. Ancestral areas were estimated at divergence events across the tree using a probabilistic Bayesian approach.

Results: 
Extensive geographical structure was evident within three well‐supported clades. These clades probably diverged from each other in the early to mid‐Miocene, and their divergence was followed by six divergences in the late Miocene and eight divergences in the Pliocene. The ancestral origin of Gerrhonotus with keeled dorsal scales (keeled‐scale Gerrhonotus) was reconstructed to be across the Pacific Coast Province. Our phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of Gerrhonotus.

Main conclusions: 
Miocene and Pliocene geomorphology, perhaps in conjunction with climate change, appears to have induced allopatric divergence on a relatively small spatial scale in this genus. The late Miocene–Pliocene reduction in the highlands along the Tehuantepec fault probably created a large marine embayment that led to an early divergence in a clade of Gerrhonotus. Our analysis suggests uplifting of the Trans‐Mexican Volcanic Belt during this same time period resulted in additional diversification. This was followed by more recent, independent colonization events in the Pliocene from the Mexican Plateau to the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, Tamaulipas and Edwards Plateau provinces. A genus Gerrhonotus with the keeled‐scale species in addition to Coloptychon rhombifer (= G. rhombifer) is strongly supported. Inclusion of the smooth dorsal‐scale species in the genus is uncertain and maintained only tentatively.

Keywords: ancestral area reconstruction, Coloptychon,  divergence dating, diversification, Gerrhonotus, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexican Plateau, Trans‐Mexican Volcanic Belt




CONCLUSIONS: 
Biogeographical studies seek to explain the distributions of species in terms of historical factors and contemporary ecology. The genus Gerrhonotus has proven to be an insightful model for studying these factors in a widely distributed group. Extreme climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene, a key driver of diversification between lineages in some taxa (León‐Paniagua et al., 2007), do not appear to have substantially affected diversification in Gerrhonotus. Instead, Miocene and Pliocene geomorphology, perhaps in conjunction with climate change, appears to have induced allopatric divergence on a relatively small spatial scale in this genus. There is strong support for a genus Gerrhonotus composed of the keeled‐scale species in the genus in addition to Coloptychon rhombifer (= G. rhombifer), whereas inclusion of the smooth‐scale Gerrhonotus into the genus should be regarded as tentative. Gerrhonotus infernalis, G. liocephalus and G. ophiurus may each be composed of multiple evolutionary independent lineages.


Uri O. García‐Vázquez, Adrián Nieto‐Montes de Oca, Robert W. Bryson Jr., Walter Schmidt‐Ballardo and Carlos J. Pavón‐Vázquez. 2018. Molecular Systematics and Historical Biogeography of the Genus Gerrhonotus (Squamata: Anguidae). Journal of Biogeography.  DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13241


[Ichthyology • 2018] Austrolebias wichi • An Endangered New Species of Seasonal Killifish of the Genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei) from the Bermejo River Basin in the Western Chacoan Region, northwestern Argentina


Austrolebias wichi

 Alonso, Terán, Calviño, García, Cardoso & García, 2018
  
Abstract
Austrolebias wichi, new species, is herein described from seasonal ponds of the Bermejo river basin in the Western Chacoan district in northwestern Argentina. This species was found in a single pond, a paleochannel of the Bermejo River, which is seriously disturbed by soybean plantations surrounding it. Despite intensive sampling in the area, this species was only registered in this pond where it was relatively scarce. Therefore, we consider this species as critically endangered. This species is the sister species of A. patriciae in our phylogenetic analyses and is similar, in a general external aspect, to A. varzeae and A. carvalhoi. It can be distinguished among the species of Austrolebias by its unique color pattern in males. Additionally, from A. varzeae by presenting a supraorbital band equal or longer than the infraorbital band (vs. shorter) and from A. patriciae by the convex dorsal profile of head (vs. concave). Further diagnostic characters and additional comments on its ecology and reproduction are provided.

Fig 1. Live pictures of males in left lateral view.
(A-B) 
Austrolebias wichi sp. nov. (C) Austrolebias varzeae, picture by Matheus Volcan;
D) 
Austrolebias patriciae from type locality, not preserved, picture by Daniel W. Fromm. 

Fig 2. Live pictures of females in left lateral view.
(A)
 Austrolebias wichi sp. nov. (B) Austrolebias varzeae, picture by Matheus Volcan;
(C) 
Austrolebias patriciae from type locality, not preserved, picture by Daniel W. Fromm.

Austrolebias wichi, new species

Diagnosis: Distinguished from all other congeners except from Austrolebias patriciae by a supraorbital bar longer or equal than infraorbital bar (vs. always shorter than infraorbital bar). Austrolebias wichi can be distinguished from Austrolebias patriciae by head dorsal profile on lateral view concave (vs. convex), the absence of filamentous rays markedly overpassing the interradial membrane distal margin of dorsal and anal fin in adult males (vs. present), by presenting small numerous whitish dots on unpaired fins in males (vs. fewer and bigger), infraorbital and supraorbital bands thinner than pupil and pointed distal portion (vs. equal or wider than pupil and rounded distal portion), dorsal-fin origin posterior to anal fin origin in females (vs. anterior) (Fig 1).

Female colour pattern similar to A. patriciae, with grey pinkish background having irregular grey blotches and some dark blue blotches over the caudal peduncle and body flank and differing from A. varzeae, which presents an orange background with minute black and grey relatively rounded, irregular blotches (Fig 2), and from A. araucarianus which presents a yellowish brown pale flank, with vertically elongated dark grey to black spots, often forming short narrow bars [Costa, 2014].
Fig 1. Live pictures of males in left lateral view. (A-B) Austrolebias wichi sp. nov. (C) Austrolebias varzeae, picture by Matheus Volcan; D) Austrolebias patriciae from type locality, not preserved, picture by Daniel W. Fromm.

 Fig 2. Live pictures of females in left lateral view. (A) Austrolebias wichi sp. nov. (B) Austrolebias varzeae, picture by Matheus Volcan; (C) Austrolebias patriciae from type locality, not preserved, picture by Daniel W. Fromm.

Etymology: The name wichi is a reference to the occurrence of the new species in the Western Chacoan region where the Wichí indigenous people inhabits in several settlements very close to the type locality.

Ecology: The ponds in the region have marked dry and wet seasons; the rains are concentrated during the summer, with about 75% of the total rains concentrated from December to March, and almost no rains from May to September [Arias, 1996] (Table 2). This determines that the seasonal ponds present water approximately from December to April, depending on the pond and the variability among years, (persobs.) (Fig 6).

The seasonal aquatic environment where the new species was collected is part of a long paleochannel which is interrupted by a road. Despite intensive sampling efforts in this area and in the Western Chacoan region we were only able to collect this species in the portion of the paleochannel immediately next to the road. Physicochemical parameters measured on January 2006 where pH 6,9 and a conductivity of 70 μsiemens/cm. This environment generally presents abundant aquatic vegetation. Other syntopic killifish species are: Papiliolebias bitteri (Costa 1989) and Trigonectes aplocheiloides Huber, 1995, which are the most abundant species, followed in abundance by Austrolebias vandenbergi (Huber, 1995) and A. wichi, which is very scarce in this environment, and some years we could not even collect a single specimen of this species while there were other annual fishes in the pond. Also, very few Neofundulus paraguayensis (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903) were collected in this pond. Nearby, a couple of hundred of metres from this environment there is another pond where we collected Austrolebias monstrosus (Huber, 1995) but this species was not found syntopically with A. wichi. There are many seasonal ponds in this area where annual fish are very abundant; nevertheless, the only place where we found A. wichi is the type locality. The only noticeable difference between this environment and other seasonal ponds in the area may be that this is a very profound (about 1 meter depth) and big environment.

From mid autumn, winter, and spring the pond is completely dry and the top layer of substrate, which consist of slime with some vegetal rests, is very dry (Fig 7). The presence of domestic cattle in this area is evident in the bottom of the dry pond and the impact of this alteration in the bottom structure over the killifish populations is unknown.

Fig 6. Type locality of Austrolebias wichi sp. nov. (A) January 2006. (B) January 2014. (C) April 2017. (D) August 2012. 

Fig 7. Detail of the bottom of the pond where Austrolebias wichi n. sp. is found. August 2012. Picture courtesy of Marcos Mirande.


Felipe Alonso, Guillermo Enrique Terán, Pablo Calviño, Ignacio García, Yamila Cardoso and Graciela García. 2018.   An Endangered New Species of Seasonal Killifish of the Genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei) from the Bermejo River Basin in the Western Chacoan Region. PLoS ONE. 13(5): e0196261.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196261

[Herpetology • 2018] Gracixalus guangdongensis • A New Species of Gracixalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Guangdong Province, southeastern China


Gracixalus guangdongensis
Wang, Zeng, Lyu, Liu & Wang, 2018


Abstract

A new species of tree frog, Gracixalus guangdongensis sp nov., is described based on a series of specimens collected from Dawuling Forest Station, Mount Nankun and Nanling Nature Reserve of Guangdong Province, southeastern China. The new species is distinguished from all known congeners by a significant genetic divergence at the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment examined (p-distance ≥ 4.6%) and the following combination of morphological characters: relatively small body size (SVL 26.1–34.7 mm in adult males, 34.9–35.4 mm in adult females); upper eyelid and dorsum lacking spines; supratympanic fold and tympanum distinct; dorsal and lateral surface rough, sparsely scattered with tubercles; ventral skin granular; tibiotarsal projection absent; toe-webbing moderately developed, finger webbing rudimentary; heels slightly overlapping when flexed hindlimbs are held at right angles to the body axis; brown to beige above, with an inverse Y-shaped dark brown marking extendeing from the interorbital region to the centre of the dorsum; males with a single subgular vocal sac and protruding nuptial pads with minute granules on the dorsal surface of the base of first finger. The discovery and description of Gracixalus guangdongensis sp. nov. represents the 14th species known in this genus.

Keywords: Amphibia, Gracixalus guangdongensis sp. nov., mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, Rhacophoridae, taxonomy, southern China




Jian Wang, Zhao-Chi Zeng, Zhi-Tong Lyu,  Zu-Yao Liu and Ying-Yong Wang. 2018. Description of A New Species of Gracixalus (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Guangdong Province, southeastern China.  Zootaxa. 4420(2); 251–269. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4420.2.7


[Herpetology • 2018] Pseudopaludicola restinga • A New Species of Pseudopaludicola (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil


Pseudopaludicola restinga
Cardozo​, Baldo, Pupin, Gasparini & Haddad, 2018

  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4766 

Abstract
We describe a new anuran species of the genus Pseudopaludicola that inhabits sandy areas in resting as associated to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The new species is characterized by: SVL 11.7–14.6 mm in males, 14.0–16.7 mm in females; body slender; fingertips knobbed, with a central groove; hindlimbs short; abdominal fold complete; arytenoid cartilages wide; prepollex with base and two segments; prehallux with base and one segment; frontoparietal fontanelle partially exposed; advertisement call with one note composed of two isolated pulses per call; call dominant frequency ranging 4,380–4,884 Hz; diploid chromosome number 22; and Ag-NORs on 8q subterminal. In addition, its 16S rDNA sequence shows high genetic distances when compared to sequences of related species, which provides strong evidence that the new species is an independent lineage.

Keywords: Leptodactylidae, Morphology, Taxonomy, 16S rDNA, Advertisement call, Chromosome number



Figure 3:  Pseudopaludicola restinga sp. nov. in life. 
Specimens from Fazenda Jacuhy, Serra (A–B), and Restinga de Praia das Neves, Presidente Kennedy (C–D).
 Photo: J Gasparini.

Pseudopaludicola restinga sp. nov. 

Synonyms. Pseudopaludicola aff. falcipes 
Almeida, Gasparini & Peloso (2011): 548 (listed) and Gasparini (2012): 15 (listed).


Diagnosis. The new species is assigned to Pseudopaludicola by its phylogenetic position and by the presence of a tubercle on the forearm, anterolateral processes of the hyoid absent, posterolateral processes of hyoid reduced, and epicoracoid cartilages slightly superposed. The new species is characterized by: (1) SVL 11.7–14.6 mm in males, 14.0–16.7 mm in females; (2) body slender; (3) fingertips knobbed with a central groove; (4) hindlimbs short; (5) abdominal fold complete; (6) arytenoid cartilages wide; (7) prepollex with base and two segments; (8) prehallux with base and one segment; (9) frontoparietal fontanelle partially exposed; (10) advertisement call with one note, composed of two isolated pulses per call; (11) dominant frequency ranging from 4380–4884 Hz; 12) diploid chromosome number of 22; and 13) Ag-NORs on 8q subterminal.

....

Etymology. The word “restinga” has an unclear origin in Brazilian Portuguese, but it is the proper name of the vegetation near the sea where the new species occurs: the restingas. Apparently, “res” comes from Latin, meaning “thing” and “tinga” comes from the Tupi indigenous language, meaning “white”, probably an allusion to the clear sandy soil of this formation. Here, restinga is used as a noun in apposition.

Distribution. Pseudopaludicola restinga sp. nov. is known from six municipalities in Espírito Santo State, Brazil (Fig. 9): Serra (type locality), Guarapari, Presidente Kennedy, Vitória (Reserva Ecológica Municipal Mata Paludosa), Vila Velha (Morada Interlagos and Vale Encantado lagoon), and Itapemirim (Lagoa das Sete Pontas or Lagoa Guanandy).

Natural history notes and conservation insights. This species can be found between dunes or at the borders of lagoons in wet or flooded places, mostly after rainfall events. The individuals were found vocalizing on the mud during the day. In addition, in the rainy season males also call in the evening and night. The restingas belong to the Atlantic Forest biome, a global biodiversity “hotspot” (Myers et al., 2000). In the restingas, the plants form paludous or herbaceous forests, but the constant disturbance of this habitat, induced by man, has led to the loss of most of their original area (Rocha et al., 2003). In concordance with the economic expansion of Brazil from 2000 to 2014, multiple infrastructure projects were developed on coastal areas of Espírito Santo, particularly port activity, and oil and gas exploitation. As a consequence, multiple pristine areas have been severely affected, including Restinga de Praia das Neves. The presence of a new anuran species in the restingas along the coastal areas of Espírito Santo contributes to the knowledge of the richness of vertebrate biodiversity of this fragile ecosystem, which requires conservation policies capable of maintaining and preserving the biological heritage of the region and of the country.


Dario E. Cardozo​, Diego Baldo, Nadya Pupin, João Luiz Gasparini and Célio F. Baptista Haddad. 2018. A New Species of Pseudopaludicola (Anura, Leiuperinae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil. PeerJ. 6:e4766.  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4766


[Arachnida • 2018] Conservation Systematics of the Shield-backed Trapdoor Spiders of the nigrum-group (Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae, Idiosoma): Integrative Taxonomy Reveals A Diverse and Threatened Fauna from south-western Australia


Figures 1–12. Live habitus images of shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the Idiosoma nigrum-group.
 1–3 Female
 I. nigrum Main, 1952 (WAM T132737) from Minnivale Nature Reserve (Western Australia) 6 Male I. sigillatum (WAM T136936) from Wangara (Western Australia)

7 Female I. jarrah (WAM T136937) from Darlington (Western Australia) 8 Female I. mcclementsorum sp. n. (WAM T139469) from Julimar State Forest (Western Australia) 9 Female I. kopejtkaorum sp. n. from Charles Darwin Nature Reserve (Western Australia)

 10 Female 
I. schoknechtorum sp. n. (WAM T140765) from SW. of York (Western Australia) 11–12 Female I. arenaceum sp. n. (WAM T141118) from Kalbarri National Park (Western Australia).


 Images 1–3, 6, 7, 9–12 by M. Harvey; 4 by Greg Anderson, used with permission; 5, 8 by M. Rix.
in Rix, Huey, Cooper, et al., 2018.
   DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.756.24397

Abstract
The aganippine shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the monophyletic nigrum-group of Idiosoma Ausserer s. l. are revised, and 15 new species are described from Western Australia and the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia: I. arenaceum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. corrugatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. clypeatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. dandaragan Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. gardneri Rix & Harvey, sp. n., i. gutharuka Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. incomptum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. intermedium Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. jarrah Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. kwongan Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. mcclementsorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. mcnamarai Rix & Harvey, sp. n., and I. schoknechtorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. Two previously described species from south-western Western Australia, I. nigrum Main, 1952 and I. sigillatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1870), are re-illustrated and re-diagnosed, and complementary molecular data for 14 species and seven genes are analysed with Bayesian methods. Members of the nigrum-group are of long-standing conservation significance, and I. nigrum is the only spider in Australia to be afforded threatened species status under both State and Commonwealth legislation. Two other species, I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. and I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., are also formally listed as Endangered under Western Australian State legislation. Here we significantly relimit I. nigrum to include only those populations from the central and central-western Wheatbelt bioregion, and further document the known diversity and conservation status of all known species.

Keywords: biodiversity hotspot, conservation biology, illustrated key, subfamily Arbanitinae, taxonomy, tribe Aganippini


Figures 1–12. Live habitus images of shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the Idiosoma nigrum-group.

1–3 Female I. nigrum Main, 1952 (WAM T132737) from Minnivale Nature Reserve (Western Australia)

4 Female Isigillatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1870) (WAM T129191) from Karnup, Perth (Western Australia) 5 Male I. sigillatum (WAM T132564) from Crawley, Perth (Western Australia) 6 Male I. sigillatum (WAM T136936) from Wangara (Western Australia)

7 Female I. jarrah (WAM T136937) from Darlington (Western Australia) 8 Female I. mcclementsorum sp. n. (WAM T139469) from Julimar State Forest (Western Australia) 9 Female I. kopejtkaorum sp. n. from Charles Darwin Nature Reserve (Western Australia)

10 Female I. schoknechtorum sp. n. (WAM T140765) from SW. of York (Western Australia) 11–12 Female I. arenaceum sp. n. (WAM T141118) from Kalbarri National Park (Western Australia).

Images 1–3, 6, 7, 9–12 by M. Harvey; 4 by Greg Anderson, used with permission; 5, 8 by M. Rix.

Figures 1–12. Live habitus images of shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the Idiosoma nigrum-group. 

7 Female I. jarrah (WAM T136937) from Darlington (Western Australia) 8 Female I. mcclementsorum sp. n. (WAM T139469) from Julimar State Forest (Western Australia) 9 Female I. kopejtkaorum sp. n. from Charles Darwin Nature Reserve (Western Australia) 10 Female I. schoknechtorum sp. n. (WAM T140765) from SW. of York (Western Australia) 11–12 Female I. arenaceum sp. n. (WAM T141118) from Kalbarri National Park (Western Australia).
 Images 7, 9–12 by M. Harvey; 8 by M. Rix.


 Michael G. Rix, Joel A. Huey, Steven J.B. Cooper, Andrew D. Austin and Mark S. Harvey. 2018. Conservation Systematics of the Shield-backed Trapdoor Spiders of the nigrum-group (Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae, Idiosoma): Integrative Taxonomy Reveals A Diverse and Threatened Fauna from south-western Australia. ZooKeys. 756: 1-121.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.756.24397

Fourteen new trapdoor spider species described in WA - Australian Geographic  australiangeographic.com.au/news/2018/05/fourteen-new-trapdoor-spider-species-described-in-wa via @ausgeo

[Paleontology • 2018] Incubation Behaviours of Oviraptorosaur Dinosaurs in Relation to Body Size


 egg incubation in oviraptorosaurs showing small species sat on the eggs (upper), whereas giant species rested in the central opening of the clutch (lower).

in Tanaka, Zelenitsky, Lü, et al., 2018. 
Reconstruction by Masato Hattori.   marchan-forest.blogspot.com

Abstract
Most birds sit on their eggs during incubation, a behaviour that likely evolved among non-avian dinosaurs. Several ‘brooding' specimens of smaller species of oviraptorosaurs and troodontids reveal these non-avian theropods sat on their eggs, although little is known of incubation behaviour in larger theropod species. Here we examine egg clutches over a large body size range of oviraptorosaurs in order to understand the potential effect of body size on incubation behaviour. Eggshell porosity indicates that the eggs of all oviraptorosaurs were exposed in the nest, similar to brooding birds. Although all oviraptorosaur clutches consist of radially arranged eggs in a ring configuration, clutch morphology varies in that the central opening is small or absent in the smallest species, becomes significantly larger in larger species, and occupies most of the nest area in giant species. Our results suggest that the smallest oviraptorosaurs probably sat directly on the eggs, whereas with increasing body size more weight was likely carried by the central opening, reducing or eliminating the load on the eggs and still potentially allowing for some contact during incubation in giant species. This adaptation, not seen in birds, appears to remove the body size constraints of incubation behaviour in giant oviraptorosaurs.

KEYWORDS: dinosaur, egg, incubation, nest, Oviraptorosauria, Theropoda


 Reconstruction of egg incubation in oviraptorosaurs showing small species sat on the eggs (upper),
whereas giant species rested in the central opening of the clutch (lower).

Illustration is drawn by Masato Hattori.

Kohei Tanaka, Darla K. Zelenitsky, Junchang Lü, Christopher L. DeBuhr, Laiping Yi, Songhai Jia, Fang Ding, Mengli Xia, Di Liu, Caizhi Shen and Rongjun Chen. 2018. Incubation Behaviours of Oviraptorosaur Dinosaurs in Relation to Body Size. BIOLOGY LETTERS. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2018.0135

    

How huge dinosaurs nested without crushing their eggs cbc.ca/1.4602808 

[PaleoIchthyology • 2018] Protohimantura vorstmani • Anatomy, Relationships and Palaeobiogeographic Implications of the First Neogene Holomorphic Stingray (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the early Miocene of Sulawesi, Indonesia, SE Asia


Protohimantura vorstmani  (De Beaufort, 1926)

Protohimantura
Marramà, Klug, de Vos & Kriwet, 2018

Abstract
The early Miocene stingray †Trygon vorstmani represented by a single specimen collected from the fish-bearing limestones of the Tonasa Formation of SW Sulawesi, Indonesia, is redescribed here in detail. This taxon exhibits a unique combination of features that clearly support the presence of a new genus, †Protohimantura gen. nov. and its assignment to the whiptail stingrays (Dasyatidae) of the subfamily Urogymninae. The morphological and phylogenetic affinities of †Protohimantura gen. nov. with the living whiprays suggest a close association of this taxon with tropical shallow-water habitats hypothesized for the SW Sulawesi palaeoenvironment during early Miocene. Moreover, this occurrence, which also represents the first holomorphic stingray specimen from the Neogene, provides new insights into the role of the Indo-Australian Archipelago for the evolutionary history of fishes associated with reefs in the context of the shift of the marine biodiversity hotspot across the globe during the last 50 million years.

    

Figure 2. †Protohimantura vorstmani (de Beaufort, 1926) from early Miocene of Sulawesi, Indonesia. A, RGM 624420, holotype; B, reconstruction, dermal denticles omitted. Scale bars 20 mm.

Abbreviations: ao, antorbital cartilage; e, eye; fpf, frontoparietal fontanelle; hyo, hyomandibula; mc, Meckel’s cartilage; mes, mesopterygium; met, metapterygium; nc, nasal capsules; oc, optic capsule; pq, palatoquadrate; pro, propterygium; rad, radials; sca, scapulocoracoid; ss, suprascapulae; syn1, cervicothoracic synarcual; syn2, thoracolumbar synarcual.

SYSTEMATIC PALAEONTOLOGY



Class Chondrichthyes Huxley, 1880 
Superorder Batomorphii Cappetta, 1980 

Order Myliobatiformes Compagno, 1973 

Family Dasyatidae Jordan, 1888 
Subfamily Urogymninae Gray, 1851 (Sensu; Last Et Al., 2016B) 

Genus †Protohimantura Gen. Nov. 

Type species: Trygon vorstmani de Beaufort, 1926.

Etymology: From the Ancient Greek word prōto, meaning ‘first’, ‘foremost’, ‘earliest form of’, and Himantura, one of the living whipray genera, thus indicating a possible close relationship between both taxa.

Diagnosis: A whipray characterized by the following combination of characters and body proportions: eye small; interorbital width/eye diameter ratio of 3.5; nasal capsule width/neurocranial length ratio of 0.7; nasal capsule length/neurocranial length ratio of 0.2; anteroposterior fontanelle/neurocranial length ratio of 0.8; scapulocoracoid width/lateral face length ratio of 2.2; 55 propterygial radials; 17 mesopterygial radials; mid-dorsal surface of disc covered by heart-shaped denticles arranged in an antero-posteriorly directed patch having sharply defined outlines; teeth with semi-ovoid or subhexagonal crown with a second transverse keel; lingual and labial crown ornamentation absent.

Remarks: The species †Trygon vorstmani was created by de Beaufort (1926) who presented a short description (one page long) and figured this single specimen in part and counterpart, which was previously collected by Professor Brouwer at the beginning of the 20th century near Patoenoeang Asoe E in the Maros district of SW Sulawesi, Indonesia. The placement of this taxon in the family Dasyatidae [= Trygonidae of de Beaufort (1926)] was based on the presence of a propterygium that is bent inwards in front to the median line and pectorals of both sides meeting at the snout (de Beaufort, 1926). However, after this first brief report, no in-depth morphological analysis or identification of characters was provided to distinguish the specimen from other extant or extinct rays, with the exception of a preliminary study by Klug & Kriwet (2012) who recognized its close relationship with the genus Himantura. However, at present, Trygon is regarded as a junior synonym of Dasyatis Rafinesque, 1810, and the Sulawesi species shows several morphological features that distinguish it from DasyatisHimantura and all representatives of the family Dasyatidae (see Description and Discussion). On the contrary, the morphological characters observed in the examined specimen and discussed below corroborate the erection of a new genus to contain †Trygon vorstmani and its inclusion in the subfamily Urogymninae.

Protohimantura vorstmani (De Beaufort, 1926)

Trygon vorstmani de Beaufort, 1926: p. 119, pl. 1 (original occurrence of name, photograph and outline reconstruction); de Beaufort, 1931: p. 462.
Himantura vorstmani (de Beaufort, 1926); Klug & Kriwet, 2012: p. 93.

Holotype: RGM 624420, single specimen in part and counterpart, lacking the posterior region of body.

Type locality and horizon: Patoenoeang Asoe E, Maros District, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia; Tonasa Formation, ?Burdigalian, early Miocene (see: Wilson, 2000; Wilson et al., 2000).

Figure 1. Location and simplified geological map of the SW Sulawesi, Indonesia. The map, showing the early Miocene outcrops of the Tonasa Formation in which †Protohimantura vorstmani (de Beaufort, 1926) has been collected, is adopted and modified from Wilson (2000) and Wilson et al. (2000).

Figure 9. Palaeobiogeographical distribution of whiptail stingrays of the subfamily Urogymninae during middle Eocene to early Oligocene (A), Miocene (B), and Pliocene to present day (C).
1, Morocco; 2, Egypt; 3, Pakistan; 4, Oman; 5, India; 6, Madagascar; 7, Indonesia (this paper); 8, Italy.

The blue colour marks the main areal of the modern representatives of the Urogymninae. Data on fossil occurrences taken from Sahni & Mehrotra (1980), Case & Wiest (1991), Cappetta & Cavallo (2006), Adnet et al. (2007, 2010), Underwood et al. (2011) and Andrianavalona et al. (2015). The enclosed solid red lines delimit the West Tethys, Arabian, and IAA biodiversity hotspots according to Renema et al. (2008).


CONCLUSIONS: 
Although the early Miocene stingray from Sulawesi lacks portions of the posterior body, including the tail and the characteristic spines, several features are preserved and allow identification as a new representative of the family Dasyatidae, subfamily Urogymninae, and the creation of a new genus, †Protohimantura. A monophyletic family Dasyatidae is recovered based on the parsimony analyses. The phylogenetic analysis recovered a dichotomous nature of the relationships of the Myliobatiformes, which might reflect a phylogenetic signal in the nature of calcification of their pectoral radials, in their body shape and, consequently, in their swimming style. The analysis of the fossil record of the Urogymninae seems to suggest that the modern distribution of whiprays is the final result of their spatial dynamics across the Palaeogene and consistent, at least in part, with the eastward shift of the marine centre of palaeobiodiversity across the globe during the last 50 million years.


Giuseppe Marramà, Stefanie Klug, John de Vos and Jürgen Kriwet. 2018. Anatomy, Relationships and Palaeobiogeographic Implications of the First Neogene Holomorphic Stingray (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the early Miocene of Sulawesi, Indonesia, SE Asia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. zly020. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zly020